Pickled Limes History & Recipe

`Why, I owe at least a dozen pickled limes”- Amy March

I totally breezed past the fact that Amy was discussing limes in this chapter and not chocolate, fidget spinners, pogs or even digital Pokémon …looking back it may seem weird that pickled limes were the children’s currency of choice but lets be honest…my own babies will probably mock me in the future.

Once I accepted that pickled limes were all the fashion it was interesting to begin researching why and what teachers had against them. Linda Ziedrich concisely broke down the cost, hidden political dealings and social implications of these tasty treats in her book Pickling.

“There they were sold from glass jars on top of candy-store counters, and some families even bought them by the barrel. Because the import tariff for pickled limes was quite low – importers fought to keep them classed as neither fresh fruit nor pickle – children could buy them cheaply, often for a penny apiece. Kids chewed, sucked, and traded pickled limes at school (and not just a recess) for decades, making the limes the perennial bane of New England schoolteachers

Who knew there were  lobbyists keeping regulation at bay that long ago? Lime lobbyists must have been a pretty tart bunch to deal with…see what I did there? Teehee.   I previously wrote about plum pudding and referenced Eliza Acton’s amazing book Modern Cookery for Private Families from  1845 and of course she also has a pickled lime recipe!

pickled limes

I really want to make a batch of these but I’m struggling on what to use them in after. I can’t see my coworkers wanting to trade with me or eating them outright. I could see using the pickled lemons when roasting a whole chicken…perhaps a good future Christmas present: a jar of pickled lemons and a jar of sea salt with thyme and rosemary mixed in. It’s a small group of foodie friends that would value that gift but the reaction would be amazing!

I may need to start compiling a separate page just for all the recipes I’m compiling throughout the years writing on this blog. You can tell my priorities at least when reading. Love a story and a snack!


The Landscapes of Anne of Green Gables

160469789x-1Timber Press in April is publishing The Landscapes of Anne of Green Gables by Catherine Reid and I must insist we all gift this book to our favorite Anne Shirley bibliophile as it is simply perfection!

When I read landscapes in the title I wrongly assumed this would be in the style of a coffee table book with only beautiful photographs of Prince Edward Island. While that is true, the photography is stunning, it’s the history and descriptions of the island, Maud and her rich family backstory that sets this book apart. It should be required reading when finishing the series for the first time.

I had the pleasure of cycling the island for 12 days with my family a few years back and seeing the island from the viewpoint of old railroad tracks, following bike paths along beaches and crossing through forests. It was such a unique way to stumble upon the Lake of Shining Waters or Haunted Woods and the intimate images in this book brought me right back to these memories.

I am going to have to purchase this book for my father-in-law as he planned out our cycling routes with the intention of seeing as much of the island as possible. These photos will bring him right back to those sun (and two rain) filled days. The descriptions and history behind these photos I hope will enrich his understanding of own my love/fandom for Lucy Maud Montgomery and remind him of an incredible adventure we all undertook. For your own gifting pleasure I would suggest finding the perfect picnic basket to fill with The Landscapes of Anne of Green Gables, a bottle of raspberry cordial or tea and some scones for the Anne of Green Gables fan in your life.

Plum Pudding Recipe for the Holidays

“Everything went right until I saw Marilla coming with the plum pudding in one hand and the pitcher of pudding sauce warmed up, in the other”

@emily_kw combines that rare mix of  thoughtful, kindness and intelligence that you find once in a lifetime. We have cross stitched and drank wine for hours on her couch as the snow falls down around in us in Calgary, we have explored Chicago together on vacation and can be found together at all high holidays giggling over silver goblets sunk into a cushion of pillows and quilts.

We started our friendship off making dates to visit all of Calgary’s top named restaurants almost 6 years ago and food has continued to take a starring role on our adventures. Thanksgivings, Christmas dinners, themed brunches…you name it and she can put a meal plan, table runner and themed decor faster then you can say Julia Child.  So it’s no surprise that when I want to combine a literary plum pudding moment from Anne of Green Gables and the original 1845 English recipe book that referenced plum pudding as Christmas pudding I would bribe @emily_kw to help. And by help, I mean do the majority of work as I perch on her table with a look of fear, respect and curiosity. I’m basically her house cat while she cooks though I’m very good at keeping her wine glass full- I can be taught!

Archive.org being the greatest of all resources has a 1882 reprinted copy of Eliza Acton’s book Modern Cookery for Private Families online.  It’s here we first see plum pudding reference to Christmas. Eliza previously had published poetry but at the behest of her publisher (what, no male poets could also cook?) she took up researching, borrowed from friends and ended up publishing a cookbook that became the standard in the industry.

The plum pudding scene has become so iconic thanks to the Sullivan 1985 mini series and even on their website they have a plum pudding recipe from their Anne of Green Gables Cookbook.  But plum puddings have rich English history steeped back possibly as far as King George I. These recipes would have been brought over to North America as families began immigrating and  it’s possible that Lucy Maud Montgomery ‘s inclusion of the scene was due to her mother’s family special plum pudding moments.

So if I can bribe @emily_kw correctly you may see our Twitter and Instagram accounts light up with photos of us trying to create a new pudding Christmas memory this year. Comment below with your own special holiday traditions.  If you get snowed this season in visit archive.org to read Modern Cookery for Private Families and try to recreate your favorite family recipe from the original.






On the Way to the Big Woods: Part 3

Before the Big Woods

This is part 3 of a multi part series tracing the Ingalls family from Lincolnshire, England to the Big Woods of Wisconsin. Remember to read part 1 & 2 before jumping into the amazing that is part 3.

“Once upon a time, sixty years ago, a little girl lived in the Big Woods of Wisconsin, in a little grey house made of logs.”

When we last left our multiple generations of Samuel Ingalls, they had moved from Massachusetts to New Hampshire. This migration would have been natural at the time as the two territories had a tumultuous relationship surrounding land claims as they grew from individual settlements into communities and finally defined territories.  Two more generations of Ingalls would live in New Hampshire, Timothy and Jonathan, before Jonathan’s son Samuel (omg, what is up with that name) would marry and live for a time in Quebec before  moving into western New York after 1818.  This is how Lansford Ingalls (Charle’s Pa) was born in Quebec and would create the first Ingalls connection to Canada.

While the Ingalls were branching out across the emerging English colonies, New France, present day eastern Canada, was attempting to establish itself simultaneously.  Between 1600-1613 settlements would start, end, move and burn to the ground. Similar to New England though, the possibility of access to new fisheries and fur trades  would push France to continue establishing settlements. St. Croix Island and Nova Scotia would see colonization as early as 1604 while Quebec would be established in 1608. The Atlantic settlements would focus on fisheries similar to New England and fur pelts pushed New France into the northern interior. Beavers (aka cash money in the luxury goods business) were becoming  scarce in Europe; merchants wanted colonization for trade and the French Crown was invested to stem the English strength in the New World. In 1627 France gave a royal charter to The Company of 100 Associates allowing them control over the fur trade in Quebec and land in exchange for growing and maintaining the settlements in New France. The company would push coureur des bois, freelance explorers, to create trade routes and promote communication between the company/government with local tribes as they dove deeper and deeper into new territories. However the Thirty Years War between France and England in Europe would impact even the colonies and eventually Quebec would surrender to English invaders. It wasn’t until 1632 that Quebec would return to French control and by then the battles had taken a toll on company management. They would officially dissolve in 1662 and in 1663 New France would revert from company settlements to a province of France. New France’s government and laws would begin aligning closer to it’s home country.  France began focusing in on strong, permanent communities as well as strong trade.  France would pay passage for single women and send money and goods as part of dowry and cash incentives were even introduced for families to have children.

It was this environment that Samuel Ingalls would have entered when he migrated into Quebec territory. It must have been stark contrast to the British colonies whose origins didn’t solely focus on trade but on religious and familial connections. Edmund’s wealth in England and lack of religious persecution would have made him academically more of a natural Canadian immigrant.  However this isn’t how history is written and Edmund’s ties to Lincolnshire ensured his connections to Endicott’s Massachusetts party. Eventually Canada’s evolution  would meet up with Edmund’s family line. The end of the Seven Years War would cement British control over the Canadian territories. Concessions to French culture would include the Quebec Act of 1774  abolished and later reinstated most of the property, religious, political, and social culture of the French-speaking habitants, guaranteeing the right of the Canadiens to practice the Catholic faith and to the use of French civil law.” But British rule was cemented and the Constitutional Act of 1791 would split the Canadian lands into Upper and Lower Canada provinces in part to assist the influx of British loyalist fleeing the colonial rebellion in the 13 British colonies to their south (aka the American Revolution). Samuel and Lansford would have experienced a prominently French Canadian culture in lower Canada, a culture that would have followed them into New York thanks to it’s early position in the fur trade (who remembers in Farmer Boy Almanzo’s interactions in with French Canadians) a culture Lansford would have seen again later in Wisconsin. It was the War of 1812  that would bring Samuel and Lansford back from Lower Canada (Quebec) to New York and the families continual search for economic prosperity that took them from New York to Illinois and Lansford’s eventual settlement in Wisconsin.

Lansford moved his family originally to Jefferson Country, Wisconsin where the Ingalls would meet the Quiner family and a young Caroline Quiner (Ma). Eventually the Quiners would marry into the Ingalls family. Polly (Ingalls) and Henry (Quiner), Caroline (Quiner) and Charles (Charles) and finally Eliza (Quiner) and Peter (Ingalls). However as the US slipped into a depression Lansford was unable to pay a mortgage he had taken out on his Jefferson County land and decided around 1862 to move further west into Wisconsin. Remember when Laura spoke of Ma’s fine clothes made out east…yea, that was eastern Wisconsin. Lansford’s sons and their new Quiner brides decided to move as well. Charles and his brother Henry would buy adjoining land 7 miles outside of Pepin where on February 7th 1867 a little girl names Laura Ingalls Wilder was born.

Zochert, Donald. Laura: The Life of Laura Ingalls Wilder. Chicago: H. Regnery, 1976. Print.

On the Way to the Big Woods: Part 2

This post is part 2 of a multi part story. Please read part 1 as it is jam packed with history and humor.  On the Way to the Big Woods: Part 1

In part 1, Edmund and Francis Ingalls  had left England and sailed on the Abigail for Massachusetts. Living under Endecott (Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony) was interesting or oppressive depending on how you felt about “rules”.  Walter Renton in The Ingalls Family in England and America, surmised that the brothers “felt uncomfortable under the restrictions of Endecott, who considered himself responsible not only for the safety but also for the habits of his colonists, and evidently was self willed and arbitrary, even temperamental” pg. 10.   Imagine traveling for  business purposes and finding the head of your party concerned with your personal  life. I imagine few of us would say “no thank you”. Which is exactly what Edmond and Francis did. Seeking permission to leave, yes that’s a thing, they would leave the original party and venture into a territory, Sargus, in present day Lynn. (It’s actually the records found later in Lynn that would point us to Edmond and Francis’ being on the Abigail. Manuscripts found in Lynn show the brothers being in the town early June and the next ship after the arrival of the Abigail wouldn’t have arrived until late June. Thus our story is strung together by the negative spaces versus an outright path.)

In “the first year there were settlements in eight places, Salem, Lynn, Charlestown, Watertown, Mystic, Boston, Roxbury and Dorchester.” pg. 74 The Bay Colony. Edmund and Francis made arrangements with the local tribes in Sargus (Lynn) for lands. By 1637 though Lynn had so many settlers it needed to formally create property borders and a town layout. A committee was formed and the brothers’ original borders would be recognized as well granted 120 additional acres. This could have come from a combination of connections with the Clinton family from  England. Lady Susan (Clinton) Humphrey was now living in Lynn; sister to Lady Arabella Johnson (married Isaac Johnson-largest shareholder in the Massachusetts Bay Company)  who had also emigrated. This additional acreage could also be proof that they had paid for their own way across on the Abigail which would have entitled them to acres.

From this timeline what can we distinguish about Edmund Ingalls?  That wandering foot of Charles’ would have started in the roots of the family tree. Edmund owned property in England but chose to sail across the sea.  He immediately leaves the established colony to venture still further in to the wilderness and essentially found a town. Edmund isn’t listed as a freeman though. Which in this colonial context means he didn’t join the Church and thus would not havethe right to vote.  He did build a malt house though; which in my book has his priorities correct.  Tragically, Edmund would die on a faulty bridge while traveling and leave his estate to his first son Robert. Edmunds’s younger sons John, Henry and Samuel would eventually leave  Lynn and move on to Ipswich, Massachusetts.

It’s through Edmund’s son Henry that our story with the Laura Ingalls  continues. Henry would move later from Ipswich to Andover. Two of Henry’s sisters had moved to Andover through their marriages which may have been why our bachelor boy decided to chose Andover when venturing out. He would purchase his land from local native tribes just like his father did in Lynn. He must have chosen his acreage well because as the town grew the local Church decided Henry’s lands were the most valuable and offered him 70 acres if they could take over his original homestead. On this new farm his family would create an almost pseudo Ingalls village. Their farms and lives buttressing against one another. Henry is listed as a freeman so unlike his father he chose to join the Church.  Records in Andover have him listed as a Sergeant and for a time as Commander of the Andover company in the Essex regiment. When Henry dies in 1718 he divided his holdings between all his sons. Henry’s son Samuel would live and die in Andover (1654-1733) but his son Samuel (yes, the recycling of names almost made me cross eye’d researching) would move on to New Hampshire. Our Ingalls family tree takes us from England to Massachusetts to New Hampshire for the first half of our story. This tree is going to branch into Canada before heading back into New York and slowly moving to the Midwest.

  1. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=scottow   Gov. Thomas Dudley:Letter to  the Countess of Lincoln, March 1631
  2. Northend, William Dummer. Bay Colony: A Civil, Religious and Social History of the Massachusetts Colony and Its. Place of Publication Not Identified: Nabu, 2010. Print.
  3. Zochert, Donald. Laura: The Life of Laura Ingalls Wilder. Chicago: H. Regnery, 1976. Print.
  4. Ingalls, Walter Renton. The Ingalls Family in England and America. Boxford, MA: W.R. Ingalls, 1930. Print.
  5. Burleigh, Charles. The Genealogy and History of the Ingalls Family in America: Giving the Descendants of Edmund Ingalls Who Settled at Lynn, Mass. in 1629. Malden, MASS: Geo. E. Dunbar, 1903. Print.

On the Way to the Big Woods: Part 1

This will be the first in a series of posts retracing the Ingalls family from their English origins to the Big Woods of Wisconsin where the Little House series begins. During my research, I was intrigued to find the Ingalls family moved back and forth across the American/Canadian border as French & British colonies developed into two distinct countries. Wisconsin was a perfect finished mirror for the Ingalls family of French Canadian culture and New England expansion. This exploration is very personal for me as I am navigating my own reverse Ingalls immigration from the United States up into Canada. I’m rethinking the North American history I understood and expanding my view on colonialism, the history it left behind and the cultures it created.

My research would not have been possible from the safety of the internet without the excellent works created by Charles Burleigh in 1903 and Walter Renton Ingalls in 1930 tracing the  family.  While Walter found the a record of the Ingalls family in 1384 in Lincolnshire, England our story starts closer to the 17th century when we can follow a direct line down to Laura. Henry Ingalls begins our family tree with records of his 1555 will. The family still residing in Skirbeck, Lincolnshire. His son Robert’s will 1617 is also documented. Which allows us to follow Henry to Robert to Edmond. It’s ultimately Henry’s grandchild Edmund who would brave the Atlantic crossing and eventually settle in Sargus (Lynn), Massachusetts.

What I found so extraordinary about Edmond’s voyage to the new colonies was his comfortable position in England. His grandfather, Henry, and father, Robert, owned land, livestock and gave money not only to their children but also servants. Edmond is not the traveler we were presented with in history books fleeing from England. He had five children, servants, disposable income and was not escaping from religious persecution. He was actually able to pay his way across the Atlantic which would lead to owning more land (then say a company sponsored man) in the new world using the headright system along with his brother.  The company that brought the Ingalls to the New World is a name that we are familiar with from elementary school: The Massachusetts Bay Company

Massachusetts was colonized around fisheries and England’s growing economy and food necessities. In 1623 of group of merchants in Dorchester England wanted to cut the costs  around the transatlantic fishing season in North America by leaving a group of men permanently in Cape Ann, Massachusetts . In theory, this band of fishing brothers would farm, hunt and trap year round and be available to assist during the fishing season with the yearly ships sent over by the merchants. The reality of the venture however is a lesson in hiring a proper project manager. No one realized that the high season for farming and fishing coincided. Two seasons did not see the returns the Dorchester Company expected and they offered to sail the original men back to England as the company was abandoning the venture. A few men decided to stay and led by Roger Conant took the remaining cattle and supplies from the Dorchester Company and moved south to Naumkeag (Salem) hoping that the farm land was better then Cape Ann had proved.

During this time back in England a new company was reforming around the idea of the settlements in Massachusetts. They would purchase supplies in England from the defunct Dorchester Co. and received an initial land grant; which must have been a surprise to Roger Conant and his group!  The shock would have doubled when they realized Roger would not continue to lead the settlement but that a man named John Endecott would arrive with new settlers and supplies on the Abigail (ship). Due to the conflicting, overlapping land grants and multitude of similar companies forming in England it was important to the new Massachusetts Bay Company to make this new land grant concrete. Luckily the new company was very well connected in Court (nepotism rules even then) and on March 4, 1629 the King would grant a royal charter: The Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England.

 While Jamestown (Virginia) was the first permanent English settlement in 1607, the link between the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Lincolnshire would have pulled Edmond and Francis Ingalls north to Massachusetts when they decided to immigrate from England. In 1631 Thomas Dudley (then governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony) wrote to the Countess of Lincoln in March 1631 recounting the travelers directly from Lincolnshire “Touching the plantacon which wee here haue begun, it fell out tlit~s:-About the yeare 1627, some fi.iends beeing togeather in Lincolnshire, fell ints some discourse about New England”. The modern spelling errors aside, Dudley is recounting the close relationship between Lincolnshire and the members of the Massachusetts colony. This discourse of immigration and the Massachusetts Bay Company centered around Lincolnshire thanks to King Charles I. If Charles  hadn’t been a complete pompous ass, New England may have had slower start instead of the waves of immigrants they experienced.

Charles’ rule was plagued with confrontations with  Parliament regarding taxes, his perceived divine right as a King and his religious polices. Translation: he wanted to impose taxes whenever he wanted without consent *cough* Boston Tea Party*cough*, he believed God put him as King (try arguing with someone who believes God is on their side) and surprise surprise religion divided people. It’s these religious policies that echoed across Lincolnshire. The 4th Earl of Lincoln, Theophilus (how did that name EVER go out of fashion) Clinton, was a puritan and Lincolnshire would become the epicenter of the movement with several future key figures in the Massachusetts Bay Colony directly connected to the Earl.  It was at Clinton’s house at Sempringham that in 1629 John Winthrop’s meetings regarding the Massachusetts Bay Colony would forever shape history within New England. Winthrop would lead his group in 1630 and ultimately spend 19 terms as governor and/or lieutenant-governor. Thomas Dudley who served as a steward at the Sempringham estate would become deputy governor. Even the curate of Sempringham would travel to the New World and become pastor of the Salem Church. The Ingalls family would not have been immune to understanding that leading members (Earls, lawyers, pastors) of their community were buzzing about this new colony and it’s potential.

Let’s reign in though the popularity contests and Puritan bonanza happening at Sempringham. Not all travelers to the Massachusetts Bay Colony were for religious reasons as we see with Edmund Ingalls and his brother Francis. Using the headright system the brothers would have paid for their passage and in return would have received a larger land grant from the company. I understand why younger brother Francis Ingalls would find the venture appealing. Under Edmond he wouldn’t have inherited his father’s land and would have been more apt to turn to a trade that could have translated/benefited a colonial existence. But Edmund chose to go as well bringing a wife and five children with him. So for a secular traveler, what was it like to join the Massachusetts Bay Colony? A colony with deep religious foundations? Well…the 1600’s aren’t exactly know for their tolerance…

Tune in for part two of our ongoing history of the Ingalls travels from Lincolnshire, England to the Big Woods of Wisconsin.

  1. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=scottow   Gov. Thomas Dudley:Letter to  the Countess of Lincoln, March 1631
  2. Northend, William Dummer. Bay Colony: A Civil, Religious and Social History of the Massachusetts Colony and Its. Place of Publication Not Identified: Nabu, 2010. Print.
  3. Zochert, Donald. Laura: The Life of Laura Ingalls Wilder. Chicago: H. Regnery, 1976. Print.
  4. Ingalls, Walter Renton. The Ingalls Family in England and America. Boxford, MA: W.R. Ingalls, 1930. Print.
  5. Burleigh, Charles. The Genealogy and History of the Ingalls Family in America: Giving the Descendants of Edmund Ingalls Who Settled at Lynn, Mass. in 1629. Malden, MASS: Geo. E. Dunbar, 1903. Print.